Vorlage:Harvard citation

Originaltemplate kopiert von: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Template:Harvard_citation

Harvard citation templates

The templates for using Harvard citations are:

([[#CITEREF|]]) or Vorlage:Harv for a basic Harvard citation

This page describes the first 3; for the others see their documentation pages.


{{Harvard citation |Last name of author(s)|Year| loc = Location in the text}}

Instead of using the optional loc parameter, you may also use one of the following parameters:

  • p = page
  • pp = pages
  • The abbreviation Harv may be used.
  • The first parameter is the author's last name.
  • Up to four authors can be given as parameters (see the examples). If there are more than 4 authors only the first 4 should be listed; listing more will cause odd things to happen.
  • The next parameter is the year of publication.
  • The year and author name(s) must not have extra space before and after, else the generated links will not work. (BUG)
  • The "loc = " parameter is the location of the cited material within the reference. This parameter is optional.
  • The parameter p is an optional page parameter; thus "{{Harv|Smith|2006| p=25}}" yields "Vorlage:Harv".
  • The parameter pp is an optional page range parameter; thus "{{Harv|Smith|2006| pp=25–26}}" yields "Vorlage:Harv".
  • If Ref=none, then no hyperlink is created.
  • To avoid the brackets surrounding the citation, use Vorlage:Harvard citation no brackets or Vorlage:Harvnb.
  • To use the author name(s) in the text, use Vorlage:Harvard citation text or Vorlage:Harvtxt.
  • For more complicated Harvard citations with multiple links use Vorlage:Harvard citations or its abbreviation Vorlage:Harvs.
  • For authors who have published more than one work in the same year, the standard way to differentiate such works is to put a lowercase letter after the year (e.g. year=2006a and year=2006b).

Editors editing this template are requested to make parallel changes to the other versions.


Markup Result
{{Harv |Smith|2006| loc=§8.5}}

(Smith 2006, §8.5)

{{Harv |Smith|2006| p=25}} Vorlage:Harv
{{Harv |Smith|2006| pp=25–26}} Vorlage:Harv
{{Harv |Smith|2006| pp=25–26 | Ref=none}} Vorlage:Harv
{{Harv |Smith|Jones|2006| p=25}} Vorlage:Harv
{{Harv |Smith|Jones|Brown|2006| p=25}} Vorlage:Harv
{{Harv |Smith|Jones|Brown|Black|2006| p=25}} Vorlage:Harv
{{Harvnb |Smith|2006| p=25}} Vorlage:Harvnb
{{Harvtxt |Smith|2006| p=25}} Vorlage:Harvtxt

Recommended style

The recommended Harvard referencing style potentially uses all four templates. Each automatically generates a hypertext link based on the name(s) and date. Here is an example

Some works on gravitation are so massive they warp spacetime themselves {{Harv|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973}}; yet {{Harvtxt|Einstein|1915}} presented essential equations with notable brevity. The essential ingredients are the curvature tensor and the stress-energy tensor ({{Harvnb|Einstein|1915|loc=p. 844}}; {{Harvnb|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973|loc=p. 41}}).
Some works on gravitation are so massive they warp spacetime themselves Vorlage:Harv; yet Vorlage:Harvtxt presented essential equations with notable brevity. The two ingredients are the curvature tensor and the stress-energy tensor (Vorlage:Harvnb; Vorlage:Harvnb).

In short:

  1. For a single work with no author in the text (the most common case), use Vorlage:Harv.
  2. For a single work with the author named in the text, use Vorlage:Harvtxt.
  3. For multiple works at the same point, use explicit parentheses and Vorlage:Harvnb separated by semicolons.
  4. For anything more complicated use Vorlage:Harvs.


More exotic Harvard citations can be constructed using the Vorlage:Harvs template. If even this is not enough, then as a last resort one can use #CITEREF as in the following example:

[[w:Property (T)|]] was introduced by [[w:David Kazhdan|]] ([[w:Property T#CITEREFKazhdan1967|1967]]).

which produces

Property was introduced by David Kazhdan (1967)

with a link to the author, and a link to a citation on a different page. #CITEREF should be followed by the last names of up to 4 authors and the year (with no spaces), and if the link is to a different page it should be preceded by the name of the page (with spaces allowed). The citation template marks the reference using #CITEREF; see the source of Template:Citation/core for details.

Use with {{Citation}}

The Vorlage:Citation template can be used to format the citations in the References section. Links from the Harvard citation to the Citation are provided using a #CITEREF link. The ([[#CITEREF|]]) template creates a link #CITEREF followed by the concatenation of the author names and the year. Vorlage:Citation creates an anchor <a name="CITEREF"></a> followed by the concatenation of the following parameters:

  • last or last1 or surname or surname1 or author or author1 or authors,
  • last2 or surname2 or author2,
  • last3 or surname3 or author3,
  • last4 or surname4 or author4,
  • editor-last or editor-surname or editor1-last or editor1-surname or editor or editors,
  • editor2-last or editor2-surname,
  • editor3-last or editor3-surname,
  • editor4-last or editor4-surname,
  • year or date.

For example {{Harv|Smith|2006| p=25}} produces a link #CITEREFSmith2006 and {{Citation|last=Smith|first=John|year=2006|title=My Life}} produces an anchor CITEREFSmith2006.